Transformer oil, also known as Fangpeng oil, is a kind of light yellow transparent liquid, mineral oil, which has good cooling and insulation, but also has the function of heat dissipation and arc suppression, reducing the density requirements of transformer oil as well as making water and impurities in oil precipitation faster.
According to the freezing point, transformer oil can be divided into three different types. The freezing point is not more than - 10 ℃, which belongs to 10 × transformer oil. If the freezing point is not greater than - 25 ℃, it is 25 × transformer oil. Similarly, if the freezing point is less than or equal to - 45 ℃, it is 45 × transformer oil. Generally, paraffin based oil is used for 10 × transformer oil, intermediate based oil and naphthenic oil are used for 25 × transformer oil, and naphthenic oil is used for 45 × transformer oil.
2. The deterioration of transformer oil is analyzed
高温、空气中的氧气和潮湿是变压器油变质的主要原因。温度越高，氧化速度越快。当变压器油温度达到70℃以上时，油温增加10℃，氧化速度增加1.5 ~ 2倍。变压器油与空气中的氧气接触时产生的热量，长期会产生一些沉积物、树脂、酸等物质，这些物质会导致材料的劣化。如果受潮、受潮，电器会导致变压器油绝缘严重降低，容易破损。通过变压器油的颜色、透明度、气味等物理特性来判断变压器油的优劣。劣质油是深褐色的，而优质油是浅黄色的。变压器油是透明的，但由于劣质油中的杂质会使油变得混浊。优质的变压器油一般没有气味，或者有一些热油味，劣质的变压器油含有一些难闻的异味。
High temperature, oxygen and humidity in the air are the main causes of transformer oil deterioration. The higher the temperature, the faster the oxidation rate. When the temperature of transformer oil reaches above 70 ℃, the oil temperature increases by 10 ℃, and the oxidation rate increases by 1.5 ~ 2 times. When the transformer oil contacts with the oxygen in the air, it will produce some sediment, resin, acid and other substances for a long time, which will lead to material degradation. If damped, the electrical equipment will lead to the transformer oil insulation seriously reduced, easy to damage. The quality of transformer oil is judged by its physical characteristics such as color, transparency and smell. The inferior oil is dark brown, while the superior oil is light yellow. The transformer oil is transparent, but the impurities in the inferior oil will make the oil turbid. The high-quality transformer oil generally has no smell, or some hot oil smell. The poor transformer oil contains some bad smell.
2. Analysis of pollutants in transformer oil
1. The source and nature of retirement pollution are transformer oil, transformer oil products, or chemical additives. The pollution source of transformer oil may be abandoned. The pollutants contain a variety of toxic substances. Some pollutants are discharged into the atmosphere, and the rest will remain in the waste oil. The results show that benzene series of pollutants do not pose a threat to human body, but polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons have a greater impact on human body.