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变压器油电气性能影响因数有哪些?

发布时间2020-03-24  来源:http://www.jnwdsh.com

  影响油浸变压器电气性能的因素很多,其中对变压器抗压强度影响较大的主要因素有含水量、空气含量、杂质、温度、流量等。通过分析这些因素对变压器油电压强度的影响,发现变压器电压等级越高,对油中含水量、气体含量和杂质的控制要求越严格。采用先进的工艺对变压器油进行脱水、脱气,或采用粗、精装置去除油中的杂质。
  There are many factors that affect the electrical performance of oil immersed transformer, among which the main factors that affect the compressive strength of transformer are water content, air content, impurities, temperature, flow, etc. By analyzing the influence of these factors on the voltage intensity of transformer oil, it is found that the higher the voltage level of transformer is, the more strict the control requirements for water content, gas content and impurities in oil are. The transformer oil is dehydrated and degassed by advanced technology, or the impurities in the oil are removed by coarse and fine equipment.
  影响变压器电气性能的各种因素分析如下:
  Various factors affecting the electrical performance of the transformer are analyzed as follows:
  1. 含油量
  1. oil content
  水以三种形式存在于变压器油中:沉积、溶解和结合。油中水含量越低,工频击穿电压越高。当含水量大于200×10-6时,击穿电压保持不变,因为多余的水下沉到油的底部,在试油过程中不会影响击穿电压值。
  Water exists in transformer oil in three forms: deposition, dissolution and combination. The lower the water content in the oil, the higher the power frequency breakdown voltage. When the water content is more than 200 × 10-6, the breakdown voltage remains unchanged, because the excess water sinks to the bottom of the oil, which will not affect the breakdown voltage during the oil test.
  当油中含水量为(300 ~ 400)×10-6时,水含量超过饱和溶解度,水沉淀到井底,油压承载值与饱和溶解度承载值相同。随着含水量的增加,浸油纸的击穿电压呈曲线快速下降。500kv变压器绝缘纸含水率控制在0.5%以下。
  When the water content of the oil is (300 ~ 400) × 10-6, the water content exceeds the saturated solubility, and the water precipitates to the bottom of the well. The bearing value of the oil pressure is the same as that of the saturated solubility. With the increase of water content, the breakdown voltage of the oiled paper decreased rapidly in a curve. The moisture content of 500 kV transformer insulating paper is controlled below 0.5%.
  降低油水含量对提高变压器运行安全性、延缓油品老化起着重要作用。为了降低油品的含水量,可以采用真空加热的方法对油品进行处理,将油品温度加热至60 ~ 70℃,抽吸高真空,降低油品中的含水量。
  Reducing the content of oil and water plays an important role in improving the safety of transformer operation and delaying oil aging. In order to reduce the water content of oil products, the vacuum heating method can be used to treat oil products. The temperature of oil products can be heated to 60 ~ 70 ℃, and high vacuum can be drawn to reduce the water content of oil products.
  2. 杂质在油
  2. Impurities in oil
  纯油的击穿场很强。当油中含有杂质和水时,油的击穿电压明显下降。变压器有很多绝缘材料,而且油中含有纤维杂质,其中含有的水纤维导电性更强。
  The breakdown field of pure oil is very strong. When the oil contains impurities and water, the breakdown voltage of the oil decreases obviously. The transformer has many insulating materials, and the oil contains fiber impurities, among which the water fiber is more conductive.
  在工频电压作用下,油中悬浮颗粒对绝缘强度的影响与颗粒的数量、大小和性质有关。
  Under the action of power frequency voltage, the influence of suspended particles in oil on the insulation strength is related to the number, size and property of particles.
  目前,油过滤器被用来处理油中的杂质。对于500kv的变压器,应使用粗滤器和精滤器两种过滤器清除油中的杂质,以保证油压电阻等级达到60kv / 2.5mm。
  At present, oil filter is used to deal with impurities in oil. For 500 kV transformer, two kinds of filters, coarse filter and fine filter, should be used to remove impurities in the oil, so as to ensure that the oil pressure resistance level reaches 60 kV / 2.5 mm.
山东变压器油
  3.油的含气量
  3. Air content of oil
  空气含量是变压器油的主要控制指标之一。运行中变压器油的气体含量不超过4%,500kv变压器油的气体含量控制在0.5%以内。对于60kv以上的变压器,在进行真空注油和成品试验前,需要进行静电放电处理。其目的是消除变压器本体和油中的气泡,防止产品试验过程中气泡的排出。
  Air content is one of the main control indexes of transformer oil. During operation, the gas content of transformer oil shall not exceed 4%, and the gas content of 500 kV transformer oil shall be controlled within 0.5%. For transformers above 60 kV, electrostatic discharge treatment is needed before vacuum oil injection and finished product test. Its purpose is to eliminate the bubbles in the transformer body and oil and prevent the bubbles from discharging during the product test.
  4. 电场的均匀性
  4. Uniformity of electric field
  改善电场均匀性可以明显提高优质变压器油的击穿电压。对于含有杂质的油在冲击电压下,杂质没有足够的时间形成“小桥”,所以改善电场的均匀性可以提高油的电压电阻。
  The breakdown voltage of high quality transformer oil can be improved by improving the uniformity of electric field. For the oil containing impurities under impulse voltage, impurities do not have enough time to form a "small bridge", so improving the uniformity of electric field can improve the voltage resistance of oil.
  5. 油流量
  5. oil flow rate
  变压器油流动时,与绝缘材料的摩擦产生静电。流速越高,电压越高。变压器内部的电气化油流动现象称为电气化油流动。带电油流会使变压器电场发生畸变。当外加电场强度超过绝缘材料的局部放电强度或击穿强度时,活油电压与试验电压的叠加将危及变压器的安全运行。因此,变压器必须控制油流速度,增大油流通道的截面,降低油流带电电压,防止因油流带电而造成绝缘局部放电或绝缘击穿的现象。
  When the transformer oil flows, static electricity is generated by friction with insulating materials. The higher the flow rate, the higher the voltage. The phenomenon of electrified oil flow in transformer is called electrified oil flow. The electric field of transformer will be distorted by live oil flow. When the applied electric field strength exceeds the partial discharge strength or breakdown strength of the insulating material, the superposition of the live oil voltage and the test voltage will endanger the safe operation of the transformer. Therefore, the transformer must control the oil flow speed, increase the cross-section of the oil flow channel, reduce the live voltage of the oil flow, and prevent the phenomenon of partial discharge or insulation breakdown caused by the live oil flow.
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